Gravity - Definition and explanation of gravity
What is gravity
Gravity is a natural phenomenon by which any object with mass exerts an attraction to other bodies in the universe, known for centuries gravity is the most mysterious and enigmatic physical phenomenon which we do not know its true origin and nature.
Gravity is present throughout the cosmos, by gravity stars are born around all universe leading to planetary systems where it breeds and life is reproduced as on our planet Earth, on the other hand gravity is directly responsible for death of stars giving way to bright white dwarfs, neutron stars or the enigmatic and dangerous black holes. Gravity is responsible for keeping in orbit around the Sun at all the planets and other celestial bodies that are in our solar system, is also responsible for keeping Moon near our planet Earth balancing tidal flows and streams of all the seas and oceans of the world as well as maintaining a stable movement by our planet which we enjoy the seasons and ideal conditions and temperatures for the development of life. Gravity is also the direct cause of keeping our feet to the ground and give us the feeling of weight, finally as demonstrated Albert Einstein gravity is even able to stop time and even create natural telescopes through which we can see distant galaxies to ours.
Galileo Galilei is considered by many as the father of modern science, many of his discoveries and inventions this Renaissance genius is remembered for discovering the existence of a mysterious force that constantly accelerated to any object that was thrown to the ground, his experiments in this field led him to enunciate his famous law in any order they were released without the presence of air fell at the same time and with the same speed regardless of their weight, against the knowledge and principles of the ancient Greek philosophers Galileo discovered gravity.
One generation after another genius of Galileo deepen about the mysterious science of gravity, Newton discovered the invisible force that drops any object that we launch into the air, the force that keeps us glued to the ground and the force that keeps planets it orbiting the star really is the same, Newton unified for the first time in the history of science a set of forces apparently different under a single force of a unique nature known as gravity, and Newton himself in 1687 he published the law of universal gravitation which largely complies in every corner of the universe no matter how far we are, in the this law indicates that the gravitational force holds an attraction between two bodies directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely as the square of the distance that separates them.
Newton formulated and found the parameters and the mathematical law governed by gravity, but never understood its nature or its origin, it took over 200 years until another genius of science help us understand the mysterious of gravity. Thanks to the theory of general relativity published in 1915, Albert Einstein discovered that gravity is merely an illusion created by the space-time fabric extending throughout the universe, any body with mass warps the fabric of creating a space-time responsible for the attraction of bodies, depending on the mass of the body is to curve geometric deformation roughly the tissue generating roughly gravitational intensity, Einstein found that the nature and origin of gravity is a consequence of the space deformations present in the universe, so for example our planet Earth does not orbit around the Sun because it attracts the gravitational force as Newton claimed, but because it follows the contours of the space-time rolling around the edge curvature created by the great mass of the Sun.
One of the phenomena of nature that was predicted by the theory of relativity of Albert Einstein's gravity affects and modifies the time, massive bodies that bend and distort space also distort time getting to stop the latter as presumably occurs in the event horizon of black holes, as amazing as it seems to us this phenomenon known as gravitational time dilation has been proven many times experimentally using atomic clocks on airplanes and rockets and others located on the Earth's surface mismatches in both appreciating one watches each be subjected to different gravities. Thanks to the time correction calculated by Einstein's theory today we can use GPS technology using satellites in Earth orbit indicating the exact position at all times of any object placed on our blue planet.
Another phenomenon predicted by Einstein is the existence of gravitational waves, these waves consist of deformations of space-time that travel at the speed of light, in March 2014 a group of astrophysicists announced the detection of gravitational waves that travelled during the early universe in the post-Big Bang period known as inflation, again Einstein was right about gravity.
Einstein also predicted the existence of gravitational lenses, these lenses are the result of the presence of large massive bodies like galaxies by gravitational effects which bends the light from distant objects brighter and generating optical effects such as distortions and amplifications images, gravitational lenses are natural telescopes that gives us the universe through which we have discovered new galaxies, quasars, exoplanets and even mysterious dark matter.
Thanks to the observations of the astronomer Edwin Powell Hubble in the early twentieth century, we now know that the universe expands quickly, in recent years, physicists and scientists from around the world have been assigned to dark energy as being responsible for such expansion regarded as a repulsive gravitational force, so naturally we find the existence of two antagonistic energies on one side is the attractive nature of gravity and secondly the repulsive nature of dark energy is even more enigmatic and mysterious than the gravitational.
We have now identified four types of fundamental interactions in nature, the electromagnetic interaction which occurs with electrically charged and connects electricity with magnetism particles, the strong nuclear interaction which is responsible for holding together the nuclei of atoms and the weak nuclear which is directly responsible for radioactivity, finally we have the gravitational interaction.
During the history of physics the main objective has been to find a single theory that unifies the 4 fundamental interactions of nature so any phenomenon can be explained by this theory of the universe at all, the electromagnetic and weak nuclear interactions have been successfully unified in the electroweak model, on the other hand we have discovered the carrier particles of the first 3 interactions, however we could not detect the carrier particle of the gravitational interaction known as graviton, on the other hand we have not yet found a valid model that unifies the mechanical that govern the quantum nature of the atomic world with the theory of relativity of Einstein which governs the nature of the universe, no doubt the Nobel Prize for physics will be for the group of scientists who detect the graviton as well as those who develop a theory sustainable and demonstrable support quantum gravity theory of relativity of Einstein, or maybe Einstein was wrong and gravity has a different nature that have not yet discovered.
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