Physics - Explanation and definition of physics
What is physics
Physics is the science that studies the behaviour and relationships between matter, energy, space and time, we can say that physics investigates phenomena that occur in nature and the universe in order to establish mathematical laws that can predict their behaviour.
Physical is all encompassing, on the one hand studying the infinitely small as are the fundamental particles known as quarks that make up atoms, on the other hand also study the distant and colossal astronomical phenomena such as quasars, black holes or movements that occur between galaxies in the universe. Furthermore physics is a scientific answer to the great questions of humanity, thanks to the physic we have theories as Big Bang that explain the origin of the universe, string theory explains the composition of the matter and energy, while other theories open the door to the existence of parallel universes.
Furthermore physics is the basic and fundamental pillar of other sciences such as engineering, electronics or astronomy, it would be impossible to design a TV without having knowledge of the electromagnetic laws, create a combustion engine without the knowledge of thermodynamics laws or use an optical fiber without the knowledge of mechanicsof waves, thanks to the physics we have satellites that orbit the earth allowing us to send and receive radio signals, we have telescopes that analyze the composition of other planets and galaxies, we have developed systems transport such as car, plane, boat, train or space shuttles, without physics the technology that we have today would not be a reality.
Physics is a practical science that is based on experimentation in order to test and validate laws and theories, through the centuries the technology used in the experiment has progressed by hand of the physical knowledge that were discovered, at the beginning Galileo Galilei used a wooden model made by himself whererun different spheres with diverse inclination, today we have complex and technological particle accelerators in where we investigate interactions and fundamental particles that make up the matter, today we have telescopes and space probes that allow us to obtain information on other planets, stars or galaxies.
Classification of physics
We can classify the various subjects or disciplines that comprise the science of physics in 2 large families, classical physics and modern physics.
Classical physics encompass all physical knowledge acquired by humanity over all the time to the twentieth century, during which time the following subjects or disciplines were developed:
Classical mechanics - includes the study of the forces and movements that occur in macroscopic bodies both solid and fluid at speeds significantly lower than the speed of light. Statics, dynamics and kinematics are parts of this discipline.
Mechanical wave - Learn all phenomena and properties associated with waves, optics that studies wave phenomena of light and acoustic that studies wave phenomena of sound are part of this discipline.
Electromagnetism - is the physical discipline that studies the unifying electric and magnetic phenomena into a single theory.
Thermodynamics - is the branch of physics that studies the processes of exchange of heat energy and how they can be used to perform work, analyzing and describing the equilibrium states of the systems.
Modern physics began its origins in the early twentieth century with the discovery of the quantum of energy by the German physicist Max Planck. The 2 main areas of modern physics are relativity and quantum physics both presenting a totally different concept of space, time and matter presented by classical physics view.
Relativity - Discipline of physics that studies and analyzes the physical phenomena that occur at speeds approaching to the speed of light.
Quantum mechanics - The branch of physics that studies the behavior and phenomena occurring at microscopic scales between atoms and particles that make them up.
Particle Physics - Study the composition of the particles that make up atoms and also their interactions.
History of Physics
The ancient Greeks tried to explain physical phenomena by using logical reasoning, but in many cases their theories were wrong to have given the secret nature reveal the laws that govern it.
We can date the origin of classical physics in the seventeenth century when in 1632; Galileo Galilei demonstrated experimentally that two spheres with different weights dropped simultaneously from the same height hit the ground at the same time, Galileo himself pronounce "the book of the universe is written in the language of mathematics" from this moment the physics experiment a turning point by using experimentation for obtaining information that confirmed physical theories that describing the phenomena occurring in nature.
Jumping physical knowledge came from the hand of Isaac Newton, when in the 1687 public his book "Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy" presented in that book the 3 laws of motion or movement that form the basis of classical mechanics, on the other hand Newton deduced the existence of an attractive force between two bodies with mass, Newton introduced the law of universal gravitation, explained by a mathematical formula the force of gravity being the same force responsible for make the apples fall the ground and that the planets are kept in orbit, a force that applies equally to small already big.
The nineteenth century physics focused on the study of the magnetic and electrical phenomena, thanks studies of Michael Faraday, Luigi Galvani and Charles Coulomb until 1855 another revolution in the history of physics came from the hand of Maxwell when he relate the magnetic and electric forces in a single unifying force known as electromagnetism.
During this same century other scientists of the caliber of Thomas Young, Augustin Fresnel, Nicolas Sadi Carnot and Rudolf Clauisious developedphysics branches of wave mechanics and thermodynamics.
In 1905 Einstein presented the theory of special relativity statement that time is not absolute but relative and the speed of light in vacuum is invariant regardless of the speed of the transmitter power, ten years later in 1915 presented general relativity discovering the true origin of gravity, Newton discovered its existence but did not know its origin and operation until Einstein discovered that gravity is the result of tissue deformation formed by space and time, discovering that time formed the fourth dimension in all the universe.
In the early twentieth century, the development of quantum physics is brewing, discovering the laws of classical physics were not met when the phenomena occurring between atoms, in the same century thanks to the particle accelerators was discovered the composition intimate of atoms and matter, discovering a variety of subatomic particles that led the standard model to classify allowing to know other forms of matter and energy and theorize the origin of our universe occur within first seconds of the big bang or big Bang.
Currently the challenge in physics is the demonstration and discovery of a universal law that unifies the 4 fundamental forces of nature, gravity, electromagnetism and the weak and strong nuclear force, a single theory that will become the holy grail of a physical law that explains the origin and functioning of all phenomena that occurs in the universe.
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